This wave of construction coincided with the industrial growth of the urban South and the concurrent surge of rural-to-urban migration that resulted from farm mechanization. According to him, this development took place in three primary stages, which are illustrated in the diagram drawn above.
Later work by John M. Vernacular architecture of the shotgun house essay its five-room houses conform to the iconic image of the shotgun cottage with their front-facing gables reiterated in the decorative gablet framing the front porch and bungalow-style brackets, they deviate from the pure type by being one-and-a-half rooms wide rather than the single linear file of rooms historically associated with the shotgun type.
The earliest extant shotguns in the South date from the s and s and can be found in New Orleans and parts of Alabama, although shotguns dating from the late s are known to exist in the upper Ohio River Valley in the area between Louisville and Cincinnati. Vlach analyzes the adoption of mortar and building dimensions in the construction of elaborate plantation houses, urban housing in free black communities and slave cabins as proof that there was a development of architectural style over time from rural to urban housing, suggesting that the shotgun was nothing new.
The floor plan of the shotgun house is always laid out with no hallway separating the rooms, hence its legendary name: For Vlach, migrants look for similarities between design elements in their home cultures and those in their new contexts to create forms that preserve the central aspects of their material culture.
Row houses were built as rental housing in working class African-American neighborhoods through the s. In his Shotguns series ofBiggers treated the shotgun cottage iconically rather than naturalistically.
As a structure, the shotgun house is a symbol of architecture created to express life lived in transition, life that is not fixed or static. You can read his complete essay in Row: The Apuja and Bohio houses were both two-room dwellings, although only the doorways in the latter were arranged along the straight axis that is commonly associated with the Shotgun house today.
John Michael Vlach demonstrates the architectural importance of syncretic design strategies for enslaved Africans in Haiti by tracing the historical evolution of the Shotgun house Vlach, Article Title Shotgun Houses. It is the strong form of the shotgun cottage that endows these small houses with the presence and dignity that are essential attributes of urban architecture.
This process of examination and reevaluation is especially notable in Houston because at Project Row Houses the shotgun cottage has come to stand for an alternative vision of Houston, not as an abstract field for pursuing profit, but as a city in which people might live lives of mutual enjoyment, edification, and respect.
Rather than facing the street, rows of such houses tended to cluster around a paved driveway and parking apron. The shotgun simply may have been the largest freestanding house that could be built under the constraints of space and budget.
Since the user and the designer were usually one and the same group in Haiti, there was little danger that the designer might misinterpret the essential elements of the Shotgun house. So why is this important? Vlach uses the example of many black architects. There have always been similar construction methods throughout the world, firstly in the western region of Africa.
Simply defined, the shotgun is a narrow house, one room wide and at least three rooms deep, oriented with its gable end facing the street. Shotgun Houses Randal Rust T A construction method known as briquette entre poteux, where a mortice tenon system is supported with diagonal lumbers in the interior corners and filled with brick and mortar, was introduced by Europeans to Haiti and Louisiana used the same materials of most African cultures.
Instead, it may be that the constraints of lot sizes and density in city and town environments influenced the development of the shotgun more than any cultural factor.
Vlach suggests that African slaves also borrowed from the house forms invented by French slave owners living in Haiti Vlach, The shotgun is primarily an urban house type, despite the common misconception that associates it with rural settings.
It has been referred to as an architecture of defiance Similar dimensions, material use, and construction methods were used continually along the Atlantic Slave Trade route by free blacks and slaves.
The house type spread from New Orleans with the out-migration of the Haitians in the s and s. The material characteristics that most readily identified the Shotgun house as a vernacular typology — the axial arrangement of its door openings and the presence of an ornamented and gabled front porch — are significant in so far as they reflected the social needs of each cultural group that used the form during a specific time period.
The Greenlaw and Vance-Ponotoc areas of Memphis still contain some of these early frame shotguns, although they are disappearing rapidly.
Hooks It is important to note that the design of the Shotgun house is interpreted here as emerging from a dynamic process, defined through the social needs of migrant communities. In New Orleans, Memphis, and Louisville, many shotguns built by owner-occupants featured fanciful Italianate architectural detailing.
By using the evidence of immigration patterns into the United States, rise of free black communities in New Orleans, understanding of the Atlantic Slave Trade route, development of Architectural traditions, and adoption of vernacular architecture, Vlach will prove his objective.The Trouble with Typology: Exposing an Essentialist Model of Cultural Analysis.
the shotgun house is a symbol of architecture created to express life lived in transition, life that is not fixed or static. The material characteristics that most readily identified the Shotgun house as a vernacular typology – the axial arrangement of its.
Essay on Vernacular Architecture: Hebridean Black House - Hebridean Black House The Black House located on the Hebridean islands of Scotland’s west coast stand for one of the earliest type of house forms of this region. This entire region has substantially high levels of humidity as a result of the maritime climate.
Simply defined, the shotgun is a narrow house, one room wide and at least three rooms deep, oriented with its gable end facing the street. The prototypical shotgun has only one window and a door on its front facade, and it is typically twelve feet wide.
Traditional Architecture vs Modern Architecture Architects should be designing structures by incorporating vernacular styles into new technologies. Let us briefly look into the meaning of Architecture - according to Vitruvius, a Roman Architect, Architecture is a multi disciplinary field, including within its fold Mathematics, Science, Art, Technology.
Vernacular Architecture of the Shotgun House Essay Sample. Vlach an architectural historian is making it his mission to correct his peers understanding and clarify that the origin of the shotgun house lies in African culture.
The shotgun cottage has been a characteristic Houston house type for over a hundred years. Associated especially with working class African-American neighborhoods in Houston and the South, it was a local, vernacular house type that in the last decades of the nineteenth century made the transition to a widely diffused, mass-produced.Download