In the years since the Second World War, and especially during the past two decades, many governments have adopted free-market economic systems, vastly increasing their own productive potential and creating myriad new opportunities for international trade and investment.
It is made in co-operation with several universities and consultancy agencies, and is meant to be the basis for tools to be developed which help organizations to implement sustainability and corporate social responsibility.
Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. Map of the Silk Road But policy and technological developments of the past few decades have spurred increases in cross-border trade, investment, and migration so large that many observers believe the world has entered a qualitatively new phase in its economic development.
The Italian explorer Christopher Columbus, financed by the Spanish crown, completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that created a European awareness of the North and South American continents. This led to several case studies in which the use of the model is illustrated.
In fact, the oppression and exploitation of colonized populations have always been an integral part of the global system. This international arrangement called for close cooperation between nation-states, as opposed to the destructive economic competitions between nations of the s.
Resistance to globalization has therefore taken shape both at a popular and at a governmental level as people and governments try to manage the flow of capital, labor, goods, and ideas that constitute the current wave of globalization. The model gives guidelines for a program of organizational change, in order to remove the discrepancy.
The founding in of the United Nations, the successor to the League of Nations that had failed during the s, marked a renewal of the idealistic internationalism that flourished prior to the first World War.
Hardjono to analyze present organization and to determine what organizational control points and interventions must be in relation to their strategy. Advances in information technology, in particular, have dramatically transformed economic life.
This strategic balance allowed governments to create social arrangements, such as the advanced welfare state. We welcome you to our website. The whole model has been made plausible by studying organizations like Philips or KLM and many others.
The Modern Age of Globalization The third phase of globalization that began in was made possible by the long economic expansion that followed the end of the Second World War.
First, they engaged in the state-sponsored acquisition of strategically significant knowledge that enabled nations such as England and Spain to establish colonial empires across the globe. A defining feature of globalization, therefore, is an international industrial and financial business structure.
The model is now being used by several consultancy firms and by researchers as the theoretical background for theses.
Many of these subordinate micro states remain under British control to this day. At the turn of the 20th century, an affluent inhabitant of London had access to many products of foreign origin years before the fateful events of August profoundly disrupted this world of unprecedented global connectivity.
For thousands of years, people—and, later, corporations—have been buying from and selling to each other in lands at great distances, such as through the famed Silk Road across Central Asia that connected China and Europe during the Middle Ages.Phases of globalization(1) 1.
What are the different phases of Globalization in history? (Use Pacific examples to demonstrate your points where capable) What are the Bretton Woods Institutions and what are the agreement that facilitated International Trade after the 2nd World War?
Chapter 8 Management. STUDY.
PLAY. phase model of globalization. exporting, cooperative contracts, strategic alliances, and wholly owned affiliates. Advantages of exporting. three trends have combined to allow companies to skip the phase model when going global.
First, quick, reliable air travel can transport people to nearly any point. The phase model of globalisation includes the stages of exporting, cooperative contracts, strategic alliances and wholly owned affiliates.
The Phase model of globalisation describes the stages that a company might go through as it sets about selling its products to a world market/5(1). Sep 09, · Three Phases of Globalization Phase 1: The Early Voyages of Exploration & Colonization Phase one begins inwith the voyage of Christopher Columbus to the new world, and continues with later European voyages of exploration that eventually made possible the formation of Europe’s colonial empires.
The Four-Phase Model is a model for managers and management consultants developed by Prof. Teun W. Hardjono to analyze present organization and to determine what organizational control points and interventions must be in relation to their strategy.
It also points out what the most likely strategy for an organization is from the point of view of.
Historically, companies have generally followed the phase model of globalization, in which a company makes the transition from a domestic company to a global company in the following sequential phases: exporting, cooperative contracts, strategic alliances, and wholly owned affiliates.Download