To the Japanese soldiers, the Chinese were simply the enemy, and the enemy did not deserve to live. The common characteristics of "groupthink" include: Our initial response to this occurrence is to question how people can commit such atrocities on fellow human beings.
Effects of promotional leadership and conformity predisposition. For instance, within military situations, interpersonal pressures to conform are intense. Scholars such as Janis and Raven attribute political and military fiascoes, such as the Bay of Pigs Invasionthe Vietnam Warand the Watergate scandalto the effect of groupthink.
This attempt to reduce decision- making stress was a prime factor Groupthink is a concurrence to the presence of groupthink. Conclusion While there is no one-size-fits-all approach to mitigating groupthink, keeping in mind that there are no fixed attributes of a group or personalities that may be causing the phenomenon, leadership can avoid the snares of groupthink by: Biased perceptions of the outgroup are another symptom of groupthink.
Navy and Army in Pearl Harbor also shared rationalizations about why an attack was unlikely. William Fulbrightattempted to present their objections to the plan, the Kennedy team as a whole ignored these objections and kept believing in the morality of their plan. Where the many are, there is security; what the many believe must of course be true; what the many want must be worth striving for, and necessary, and therefore good.
Any dissenting opinions tend to be suppressed through intimidation or be simply not allowing the dissenter to voice his objections. Solitude is out of fashion. Their abilities are discredited and underestimated.
More importantly, the devaluation of the outgroup results in a degree of dehumanization which allows the ingroup to justify the violence and inhumanity of their actions. Aldag and Fuller thus suggest a new model called the general group problem-solving GGPS modelwhich integrates new findings from groupthink literature and alters aspects of groupthink itself.
Examples of groupthink can be found in historic events such as the U. Ironically, the role of leadership is also pivotal in ensuring that teams escape the potential pitfall of groupthink by adopting certain practices that mitigate groupthink.
Defective decision-making strategies also arise from groupthink. A mindguard also applies pressure to any dissenting members, ultimately forcing them into silence. Gazing through Six Hats.
Sociocognitive theory[ edit ] According to a new theory many of the basic characteristics of groupthink — e. Clearly, too, the public did not regard them as criminals, but rather as upright and conscientious men. This led to a thorough evaluation of a wide range of criteria and careful weighing of associated costs and risks.
Journal of Managerial Psychology, 11 83. This self-censorship led to the appearance of unanimity among the soldiers. Who would take over from Carson:Janis originally defined groupthink as "a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members' strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alter native courses of action."5 According to his definition, groupthink occurs only when cohesiveness is high.
According to Janis, groupthink is detrimental to effective decision-making in that “concurrence seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive ingroup that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action” (as cited in Leana,p.5).
Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people, in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an incorrect or deviant decision-making outcome. Group members try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative ideas or viewpoints, and by isolating themselves from outside influences.
Recent research suggest groupthink is a _____ not an outcome and that groupthink can actually sometimes be _____ groupthink. a way of group deliberation that minimizes conflict and emphasizes the need for unaminity.
problem solving groups. concurrence seeking, correlated, defined. Janis suggested that groupthink tends to be the most prevalent in conditions where there is a high degree of cohesiveness, situational factors that contribute to deferring to the group (such as external threats, moral problems, difficult decisions), and structural issues (such as.
GROUPTHINK THEORY Groupthink is a concurrence-seeking tendency that can deter collective decision-making processes and lead to poor decisions that induce fiascos, (Janis,).Download